Our goals for this project were to: A total of types representing species were studied. Of these species are described only once whereas 40 species had one ore more synonyms. Of the names studied only 61 were currently represented in GenBank. Neotypes are proposed for 21 datting, and epitypes are designated for three species.
In addition, 20 new species are described and six new combinations made. As a consequence ITS barcodes for Cortinarius species are released. In addition, it is not always easy to determine which species have been described and which are new to science, unless the type dating synet kiiminki of existing names can be carefully studied, including DNA sequencing.
For many species of macrofungi the names have been difficult or even impossible to interpret. The most difficult ones are the older names with brief descriptions and usually without type material. But even if type material exists it can be very difficult to be certain of the identification kiimknki only on morphology, especially in challenging genera like Cortinarius where there is considerable convergence in morphology, colouration, and microscopic features.
Furthermore, the literature is often difficult to obtain, making it hard to get information on available names and their application by earlier taxonomists. Consequently, many names have not been used consistently and in some cases the same species has been described two or more times under separate names. Dating synet kiiminki instances where there is no type material available, a neotype or a lectotype if collections of the dating synet kiiminki are available is required to stabilize the synett of the name.
Finally, old type collections that are considered historical materials may not be available for study or DNA sequencing requiring the selection of an epitype. The development of molecular techniques has provided a more unambiguous tool to identify species. Currently the most commonly used locus in species level taxonomy is the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer ITSwhich has been proposed as a universal barcode marker for fungi Schoch et al.
The region is present in several chromosomes and is arranged in tandem repeats that are thousands of copies long Burnett It has also been shown that in the majority of the dating synet kiiminki ITS is suitable for species delimitation in Cortinarius. Cortinarius is the largest genus of Agaricales with a cosmopolitan distribution and over 2 described species Kirk et al. Dating synet kiiminki species are important ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with different trees and shrubs, belonging to the order Fagalesfamilies CaesalpiniaceaeCistaceaeDipterocarpaceaeMyrtaceaePinaceaeRhamnaceaeRosaceae and Salicaceae as well as a few herbaceous plants in the Dating synet kiiminki.
Owing to their often narrow ecological preferences and sensitivity to environmental change, many Cortinarius species have been used as indicator species for valuable natural environments, e. In Europe the eating extensive studies have been done by Fries e. Selected papers of some of the major contributors to Cortinarius systematics in North America include Peck ; also see GilbertsonKauffman,Smith,AmmiratiAmmirati et al. Very little is known about the distribution of Cortinarius species on a larger scale or the differences in the species composition between the oiiminki, although species in the southern hemisphere are distinct from those in the northern hemisphere Peintner et al.
These studies show several patterns of species distributions. There are species common to North America and Europe, especially those species from more datingside kaffe turku and montane conifer forests, i. Cortinarius species composition is somewhat similar between eastern North America dating synet kiiminki Europe, but there appears to be less similarity between Europe and western North America.
Different infrageneric classification systems have been proposed for Cortinariusi. CortinariusMyxaciumPhlegmacium and Telamonia. Recent molecular analyses have shown that Cortinarius is monophyletic, symet also that dating synet kiiminki of the infrageneric kiiminkj such as subg. Phlegmacium are not monophyletic Peintner et al.
Nonetheless, several authors have treated subg. Phlegmacium in similar dating synet kiiminki MoserBidaud et al. Phlegmacioides Niskanen et al. Molecular techniques have been in use for more than a decade, and the sequencing of ITS regions even from dating synet kiiminki Cortinarius specimens is dating synet kiiminki. Furthermore, type studies are essential for a stable and consistent application of names in Cortinarius where currently a large percentage of the Cortinarius sequences are incorrectly named or without a name in the public sequence databases e.
While several papers present sequences for individuals or groups of species, for example Garnica et al. The present study focuses on Cortinarius subg. Our goals for this project are to: The type specimens of species of subg. Phlegmacium published over many years by J. Dating synet kiiminki were sampled as well as relevant collections published and illustrated in Brandrud et al.
The species of sections CalochroiFulvi and Riederi described from Europe were generally excluded. In some instances dating synet kiiminki material could not be acquired from herbaria, datig example, the Cortinarius collections of C. Peck were only recently available on loan from the New York State Museum and will be included in a later study. Our aim was to have at least two kiimminki per species in our study.
Therefore, in addition to sequences from type specimens, either our own unpublished sequences or additional sequences retrieved from the sequence databases GenBank and UNITE were included.
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